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Advanced OOPS Concepts


Object-oriented programming attempts to provide a model for programming based on objects.Object-oriented programming integrates code and data using the concept of an “object”. An object is an abstract data type with the addition of polymorphism andinheritance. An object
has both state (data) and behavior (code).

Objects sometimes correspond to things found in the real world. For example, a graphics program may have objects such as “circle,” “square,” “menu.” An online shopping system will have objects such as “shopping cart,” “customer,” and “product.” The shopping system will support behaviors such as “place order,” “make payment,” and “offer discount.”

Objects are designed in class hierarchies. For example, with the shopping system there might be high level classes such as “electronics product,” “kitchen product,” and “book.” There may be further refinements for example under “electronic products”: “CD Player,” “DVD player,” etc. These classes and subclasses correspond to sets and subsets in mathematical logic. Rather than utilizing about database tables and programming subroutines, the developer utilizes objects the user may be more familiar with: objects from their application domain.

Object orientation uses encapsulation and information hiding. Object-orientation essentially merges abstract data types with structured programming and divides systems into modular objects which own their own data and are responsible for their own behavior. This feature is known as encapsulation. With encapsulation, the data for two objects are divided so that changes to one object cannot affect the other. Note that all this relies on the various languages being used appropriately, which, of course, is never certain. Object-orientation is not a software silver bullet.

The object-oriented approach encourages the programmer to place data where it is not directly accessible by the rest of the system. Instead, the data is accessed by calling specially written functions, called methods, which are bundled with the data. These act as the intermediaries for retrieving or modifying the data they control. The programming construct that combines data with a set of methods for accessing and managing that data is called an object. The practice of using subroutines to examine or modify certain kinds of data was also used in non-OOP modular programming, well before the widespread use of object-oriented programming.

Defining software as modular components that support inheritance is meant to make it easy both to re-use existing components and to extend components as needed by defining new subclasses with specialized behaviors. This goal of being easy to both maintain and reuse is known in the object-oriented paradigm as the “open closed principle.” A module is open if it supports extension (e.g. can easily modify behavior, add new properties, provide default values, etc.). A module is closed if it has a well defined stable interface that all other modules must use and that limits the interaction and potential errors that can be introduced into one module by changes in another.


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